Mitral Insufficiency

Description, Diagnosis, Evolution.

It is a valve defect consisting of the incomplete closure of the mitral valves in the systole, which does not allow the return of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium. Systolic reflux produces left ventricular dilatation. In time, dilation and hypertrophy of the left ventricle can occur due to the additional work it has to undergo.

When the left ventricle creeps and left ventricular failure occurs, the retrograde stage causes the disorders described by mitral stenosis.

There is an organic mitral insufficiency, usually of rheumatic nature (more rarely traumatic or atherosclerotic), and a functional failure (by dilating the left ventricle or the mitral orifice) due to arterial hypertension, aortic valvular disease, myocarditis.

Pure mitral insufficiency is very rare, usually associated with mitral stenosis, where the mitral disease is reported.

Diagnosis

It is done in the presence of intense systolic bumps at the tip of the heart, similar to vapour pressures, propagated to the left axle, sometimes accompanied by freak and noise reduction. The left ventricle is enlarged, the tip of the heart being moved down and to the left. Mitral insufficiency is reported in the presence of an apical systolic breath.

Evolution

The mild forms are asymptomatic, and the severe ones evolve to pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

Rhythm disorders are uncommon, and thromboembolic complications, more rare than mitral stenosis.

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